Africa might leapfrog straight to cheap renewable electricity and mini-grids.
Apart from speckles of light around the biggest cities, much of Africa is dark.Of all the measures of the continent’s poverty, few are starker than that about two-thirds of its people have no access to reliable electricity. The number of Africans without any power is 620 million, most of them in villages and on farms. The African Progress Panel (APP) found that in nine African countries fewer than one in five primary schools had lights. A study by the World Health Organization found that about a quarter of clinics and hospitals in 11 African countries have no power of any kind, and many of the rest get it from generators that often break down or run out of fuel. If you don’t have electricity you don’t have a fridge, and if you don’t have a fridge hospitals can’t store vaccines. They rely on expensive backup generators, so the electricity they use is among the costliest in the world. This is the biggest single barrier to development.
Adding a house to the grid even in a compact country such as Rwanda typically costs about $2,000, which is more than the country’s average annual income per person. The APP reckons that expanding grid power across Africa to reach almost everyone would cost $63 billion a year until 2030, compared with the $8 billion a year that is being spent now.Continue reading HUG THE MINI GRID 2→
TheHUGis a damless system that uses kinetic power of moving water. Rapids can add 70 MW power without impacting on the environment. Africa could benefit from its kinetic power of water from rapids. This would provide a return on investment within just a few years.
A Funnel HUG can be adapted to capture kinetic energy in the form of electricity from the tail race of a dam.
Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: POWER
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity). The area of the throat of the HUG is 3.26 m2
Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (7.7 m/s*)3 x .35 = 260kW/turbine x 6 = 1.56 MW
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m/sec
(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x 3.05 m)= 7.7 m/sec
The U.N. Panel on Climate Change’s prediction is that we have past the likelihood of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C.
Fossil Fuel Warning
Climate scientists beg governments to leave buried natural resources in the ground.
The research project started with the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s calculation that in order to have at least a 40 percent chance of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C, somewhere between 900 and 1,200 giga tons of carbon dioxide can be dumped in the atmosphere.
Vast underground reserves of oil, gas and coal should be classified as off limits if the world stands any chance of averting dangerous climate change, a major study of global fossil-fuel deposits has found.
Scientists calculated that a third of global oil reserves, half of gas reserves and more than 80 per cent of coal reserves should remain in the ground as “unburnable” to avoid exceeding the 2C “safe” threshold for global warming.
The scale of the problem facing the climate negotiations in Paris later this year is writ large in the study by Christophe McGlade and Paul Ekins of University College London who have identified the critical fossils fuels and their locations that need to remain untouched and unexploited.
China, Russia and the United States will have to leave their huge deposits of coal – the dirtiest of the three main fossil fuels – underground, while the Middle East will need to agree to keep much of its wealth-creating oil and gas reserves where they are.
Similarly, Canada will have to relinquish its ambitions of producing oil from tar sands and the Arctic nations, mainly Russia, will have to agree that exploiting oil and gas in this environmentally sensitive region would be incompatible with a global climate agreement.
“Burning all the reserves would exceed the range of the carbon budget by about three times burning all the fossil fuel resources would probably exceed it by about 10 to 11 times,” Dr McGlade said.
“If we want to reach 2C in the most cost effective way, over 80 per cent of current coal reserves, half of gas reserves and a third of oil reserves globally need to be classified as unburnable, that is to stay in the ground and not be used before 2050 if we want to stay below 2C,” he said.
The greater global attention to climate policy also means that fossil fuel companies are becoming increasingly risky for investors in terms of the delivery of long-term returns
Canada holds the world’s single largest share of unburnable oil because most of that reserve comes in the form of tar sands, a mix of bitumen and sand that requires burning natural gas to transform it into usable petroleum products. “Eighty-five percent of its reserve base of 50 billion barrels has to remain in the ground,” McGlade said.
Regional Distribution of Reserves Unburnable before 2050 to stay below 2 degrees C even with CCS
China & India
C & S America
Currently, the world is on pace for as much as 5 degrees C of global warming,or the equivalent of burning an extra roughly 300 billion metric tons of coal and 220 billion barrels of oil, including some of the reserves likely to be discovered in the rapidly melting arctic.
To avoid burning all that fossil fuel the ISR computer model suggests building more nuclear power plants, switching to rooftop solar power and burning biofuels while capturing and storing the resulting carbon to help draw down atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These concentrations have already touched 400 parts per million, the highest levels seen in at least 800,000 years.
Deaths per TWh
The World Health Organization has published information on the Deaths per TWh (2008):
Coal (electricity, heat, cooking –world average) 100 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
Coal electricity – world average 60(26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
Coal (electricity, heat, cooking)– China 170 ( 4 billion tons of coal burned by China each year makes it a grim place to live.)
Coal – USA 15
Oil 36 (36% of world energy)
Hydro 0.10 (2.2% of world energy)
Solar and Wind Energy Solutions won’t cut it!
This Study on Climate Change neglected to mention an important solution: Small Hydro and the Innovative HUG.
WORLD HYDRO POWER POTENTIALEnter Small Hydro Potential!
Helical Turbines in the HUG have been successfully developed over the last 15 years. The present electric turbine systems are working at 60% efficiency. For example, the Nseke Power Plant, which was built in 1956, has only 3 of its 4 turbines in operation even though it is suppose to produce 62% of the Katanga Mining Region. Rehabilitating these plants will cost over US$840 million (2015 estimate) to solve the Katanga Energy Problem.
There is a promise to increase the available power supply from the Inga hydroelectricity facility to 450 MW to the Katanga Province by 2015. One company alone, Katanga Mining Ltd., will needs 250 MW.
KATANGA ENERGY PROBLEM SOLVED
Let’s Think out of the Box
If you examine the map above, you will notice the proximity of Rapidsor Waterfalls near the mining sites of Mutanda, Kisamfu, Tenke Fungurume, Kalakundi, and even Kolwezi to name a few. The red dots represent power stations in the area.
THE HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a new good, which has never been seen before. It substantially deviates from any other good or service produced before. Over the past decades, no major breakthroughs have occurred in the basic machinery of Pipeline Rehabilitation to solve the problem of pipeline corrosion.
PIPELINE INTRUSION SYSTEM
Average 250 Pipeline Accidents Each Year: Billions Spent on Property Damage
THE NEED: Corrosion remains the number one problem in the industry. The Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) is the state-owned oil company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is among the leading producers of natural gas, and monitors and controls a 20,000 km pipeline network. The problem of corrosion took precedence in the latest pipeline conference this summer in Saudi Arabia: one third of the time was allocated to this problem.
THE HIGH COST OF REHABILITATION: In January 2010, UAE-based construction firm, Dodsal, won a contract for the replacement of a 100 km, 36 inch diameter pipeline linking Abu Dhabi, worth approximately $US 85 million: $US 8.5 million/km. The HUG Thermoplastic Liner would have cost 25% to 33% less: $56.6million to $US64 million– a saving up to $US21 million and still would have generated a very high profit margin.
Among the largest producing regions, the Middle East is also the fastest growing market for pipelines. The region will expand by 42% in construction length and 63% in expenditure over the next 5 years. Why not install a HUG Thermostatic Liner in all the new pipeline networks to extend their lifetime to 50 years for a reasonable extra cost?*
THE COMPETITION:There are presently other HDPE liners. The power roller compresses these liners to provide an optimum of a 0.5 inches gap inside the carrier pipeline. This gap closes upon use and the new liner becomes supported by the steel pipeline. The difficulty is that the gap is too small and consequently the maximum distance for rehabilitation of a large dimension pipeline is 800m. This short distance is caused by the friction of the weight of the liner as it is forced along the corrosive pathway of the carrier pipeline. There is no room for adding a lubricated ‘slip slide’. (If the compression exceeds a 0.5 inches gap, the memory of the HDPE pipe is loss.)Continue reading PIPELINE CORROSION FINALLY SOLVED 2→
Our aim is to help the wealth gradually trickle down so that Africa can have the fastest growing middle class in the world.
A country cannot grow with only a rich class and a poor class! It is acknowledged that many living on US$2 to US$4 a day could easily slip back into poverty. The middle class is presently almost non-existent, when you accurately define them as owning a small house or a car.
Stage 1 Agricultural Mechanization of Africa Stage 2 Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund Resource Stage 3 Micro Finance and Landlord Cooperative for Irrigation Stage 4 Irrigation in Remote Areas using moving water energy. Stage 5 Electricity in Remote Areas created from moving water.
Africa: the world’s fastest-growing middle class is coming!
As an indicator of recent trends, The Economist magazine, which in 2000 ran a cover story headlined ‘The hopeless continent’ recently U-turned with an article headed ‘The Hopeful Continent’. But for those already investing in the continent, their experience is ‘a story of progress, growth, a story of political and economic vibrancy’.
Stimulating Entrepreneurship in Africa
Our Model is for Micro Investments, known as AFRICApitalism. Your passion should be entrepreneurship. For others it may be health care or education. Driving Africa’s economic development by supporting entrepreneurship will bring more people out of poverty than any other solution. We wish to start down the path of strategic philanthropy early: the challenge of supporting the development of Africa in a sustainable way.
Co-investment crowd and professionals invest together under the same financial conditions. LIVING WATER IS CORPORATION, the profit sharing arm of LIVING WATER MICROFINANCE INC.uses the techniques of crowdfunding to give people the opportunity to select and invest alongside professionals, who analyses the investment opportunity. A prospectus may be issued in order to comply with the market regulator’s requirements.
Our solution lies in a hydro kinetic energy system called theHUG: Electricity in Remote Areas created from moving water. Electricity supply is worse in rural areas where four out of five people in Africa, are without electricity. The rate of rural electrification is lower than in any other continent. The proportion of people in Africa still depending on inefficient traditional energy sources is higher than in any other continent.
We have developed the ProprietaryHUG, based on the physics of the vortex, which will revolutionize hydroelectric energy. This new damless development of a submerged helical pathway is capable of extracting huge hydro-electric power from rivers, rapids or small waterfalls at low cost, especially in remote areas of the country where there are no dams.
HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a New Good, which has never been seen before; it substantially deviates from any other good or service produced before. Over the past decades, no major breakthroughs have occurred in utilities.
The river flows into a pencil-shaped construction, called a HUG, which uses a helical turbine to power a large irrigation pump without the expense of electricity or diesel . When we direct the water to flow at its natural mode, it hugs the inner wall. This kind of vortex motion tends to accelerate and contract the stream of water four to five times faster than the river velocity.
HUG ENERGY uses wave energy to pump seawater to shore. Our industrial partners are able to desalinate the seawater using the pressure alone with no external energy source in a reverse osmosis system. The resulting fresh water is then put through drip irrigation systems able to irrigate 15-30 hectares of land. Green coastal deserts means more jobs and more food.
The real advantage of the HUG is POWER from the action of the vortex in the HUG and the Venturi effect created by the shape of the HUG:
Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: HIGHPOWER DENSITY
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept); Velocity. The area of the throat of the HUG is 3.26 m2
Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (14.7 to 17.7 m/s)3 x .35 = 14.7 to 74.5 kW/turbine
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m/sec 2 for 11 to 16 m waves.
(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x (11m to16 m)= 14.7 m/sec to 17.7m/sec
Distance (s) of Crest of HUG
Number of Systems
Number of Turbine
Final Velocity (m/s)
V2 = 2as: (11m to16 m)
Final Power (kW/ turbine) = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (d)3 x .35