HUG and GLOBAL WARMING 2

GLOBAL WARMING PREDICTION

The U.N. Panel on Climate Change’s prediction is that we have past the likelihood of  keeping global warming below 2 degrees C.

Fossil Fuel Warning

Climate scientists beg governments to leave buried natural resources in the ground.

The research project started with the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s calculation that in order to have at least a 40 percent chance of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C, somewhere between 900 and 1,200 giga tons of carbon dioxide can be dumped in the atmosphere.

Vast underground reserves of oil, gas and coal should be classified as off limits if the world stands any chance of averting dangerous climate change, a major study of global fossil-fuel deposits has found.

Scientists calculated that a third of global oil reserves, half of gas reserves and more than 80 per cent of coal reserves should remain in the ground as “unburnable” to avoid exceeding the 2C “safe” threshold for global warming.

The scale of the problem facing the climate negotiations in Paris later this year is writ large in the study by Christophe McGlade and Paul Ekins of University College London who have identified the critical fossils fuels and their locations that need to remain untouched and unexploited.

China, Russia and the United States will have to leave their huge deposits of coal – the dirtiest of the three main fossil fuels – underground, while the Middle East will need to agree to keep much of its wealth-creating oil and gas reserves where they are.

Similarly, Canada will have to relinquish its ambitions of producing oil from tar sands and the Arctic nations, mainly Russia, will have to agree that exploiting oil and gas in this environmentally sensitive region would be incompatible with a global climate agreement.

HUG and GLOBAL WARMING
HUG and GLOBAL WARMING

“Burning all the reserves would exceed the range of the carbon budget by about three times burning all the fossil fuel resources would probably exceed it by about 10 to 11 times,” Dr McGlade said.

“If we want to reach 2C in the most cost effective way, over 80 per cent of current coal reserves, half of gas reserves and a third of oil reserves globally need to be classified as unburnable, that is to stay in the ground and not be used before 2050 if we want to stay below 2C,” he said.

The greater global attention to climate policy also means that fossil fuel companies are becoming increasingly risky for investors in terms of the delivery of long-term returns

Canada holds the world’s single largest share of unburnable oil because most of that reserve comes in the form of tar sands, a mix of bitumen and sand that requires burning natural gas to transform it into usable petroleum products. “Eighty-five percent of its reserve base of 50 billion barrels has to remain in the ground,” McGlade said.

Regional Distribution of Reserves Unburnable before 2050 to stay below 2 degrees C even with CCS

Region Oil Gas Coal
  Gb % Tcm % Gt %
Africa 23 21% 4.4 33% 28 85%
Canada 39 74% 0.3 24% 5.0 75%
China & India 9 25% 2.9 63% 180 66%
FSU 27 18% 31 50% 203 94%
C & S America 58 39% 4.8 53% 8 51%
Europe 5.0 20% 0.6 11% 65 78%
Middle East 263 38% 46 61% 3.4 99%
OECD Pacific 2.1 37% 2.2 56% 83 93%
ODA 2.0 9% 2.2 24% 10 34%
United States 2.8 6% 0.3 4% 235 92%
Global 431 33% 95 49% 819 82%

Currently, the world is on pace for as much as 5 degrees C of global warming, or the equivalent of burning an extra roughly 300 billion metric tons of coal and 220 billion barrels of oil, including some of the reserves likely to be discovered in the rapidly melting arctic.

To avoid burning all that fossil fuel the ISR computer model suggests building more nuclear power plants, switching to rooftop solar power and burning biofuels while capturing and storing the resulting carbon to help draw down atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These concentrations have already touched 400 parts per million, the highest levels seen in at least 800,000 years.

Deaths per TWh

The World Health Organization has published information on the Deaths per TWh (2008):

  • Coal (electricity, heat, cooking –world average) 100 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
  • Coal electricity – world average 60 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
  • Coal (electricity, heat, cooking)– China 170 ( 4 billion tons of coal burned by China each year makes it a grim place to live.)
  • Coal – USA 15
  • Oil 36 (36% of world energy)
  • Hydro 0.10 (2.2% of world energy)

Solar and Wind Energy Solutions won’t cut it!

This Study on Climate Change neglected to mention an important solution: Small Hydro and the Innovative HUG.

WORLD HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL

WORLD HYDRO POWER POTENTIALEnter Small Hydro Potential!

HUG HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL
HUG HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL

Continue reading HUG and GLOBAL WARMING 2

WATER TRANSFER: PACIFIC RIM 2

Water Transfer 

  • The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction. This means a water transfer system in the Pacific Rim would go for hundreds of kilometers with fewer pumps
  • The traditional method is a straight pipeline, which develops a turbulent flow, caused by the friction on the inside lining of this pipeline.
  • This old pipeline system requires several expensive large dimension water pumps and water reservoirs along its pathway with a maximum length of less than 78 km.

We have discovered new inexpensive ways to manage the water shortage. The HUG exceeds the previous distance limits of transferring fresh water by a factor of ten from 70 km to 1000 km.

Water pipeline projects are becoming an increasingly important part of Australian infrastructure development in order to ensure water supply to the nation’s growing population.

Western Australia from the Tully River to Brisbane, Queensland           is less cost than the proposed pipeline from the Burdekin River to Brisbane which is projected to cost approximately $7.5 billion for infrastructure and about $250 million for annual operation pump stations, four reservoirs and 11 tunnels.  Enter the HUG: and the price is 30% less. Continue reading WATER TRANSFER: PACIFIC RIM 2

WATER TRANSFER: AFRICA 2

How are we changing the world
How are we changing the world?
  • The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction. This means a water transfer system in Africa would go for hundreds of kilometers with fewer pumps
  • The traditional method is a straight pipeline, which develops a turbulent flow, caused by the friction on the inside lining of this pipeline.
  • This old pipeline system requires several expensive large dimension water pumps and water reservoirs along its pathway with a maximum length of less than 78 km.

HUG Technology

HUG is a patented water transfer system that will literally change the face of our world as we know it. Imagine new fresh water delivered over 1000 km in a HUG ocean pipeline.

Objective: to build an ocean-going pipeline  longer than 1000 km

  • With a pipeline built on the ocean floor, the cost would be close to $3.6 million/mile.
  • Large dimension pumps adds to the cost (every 70 km), which is only possible if a reservoir can be built on nearby land: the cost of $6.4 million/mile.
  • Now let us eliminate the large dimension pumps with a HUG: the cost  is  reduced to less than $1million/mile. What a bargain!
WATER TRANSFER: AFRICA
WATER TRANSFER: AFRICA

What we call violent conflict should be seen for what it is: poverty hunger, water scarcity & despair. Most of all we need to subdue our fears and cynicism and provide HOPE. We need science and technology.

ANGOLA

Continue reading WATER TRANSFER: AFRICA 2

WATER TRANSFER: AMERICAS 2

THE HUG

  • The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction. This means a water transfer system in America would go for hundreds of kilometers with fewer pumps
  • The traditional method is a straight pipeline, which develops a turbulent flow, caused by the friction on the inside lining of this pipeline.
  • This old pipeline system requires several expensive large dimension water pumps and water reservoirs along its pathway with a maximum length of less than 78 km.

Presently,  excess fresh water is wasted as it flows into the ocean. Present technology of water transfer is limited to 80 km between pumping stations.  No one has considered the possibility of transferring fresh water through the ocean over a distance of ten times that limitation of 80 km. One can float these pipelines at a depth of 30 meters in an ocean environment, which allows one country to sell its excess water to another country over a long distance. 

This fresh water pipeline is extruded directly into the ocean from a barge or from a sea shore without any welding required.

The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction.

WATER TRANSFER:
WATER TRANSFER BY OCEAN

WATER TRANSFER: BRAZIL

Continue reading WATER TRANSFER: AMERICAS 2

WATER TRANSFER NORTH AMERICA 2

THE HUG

  • The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction. This means a water transfer system in United States would go for hundreds of kilometers with fewer pumps
  • The traditional method is a straight pipeline, which develops a turbulent flow, caused by the friction on the inside lining of this pipeline.
  • This old pipeline system requires several expensive large dimension water pumps and water reservoirs along its pathway with a maximum length of less than 78 km.
  • New technology leads to new growth opportunities.
  • Canada and United States can lead the world in this new technology.
  • HUG is a patented water transfer system that will  literally change the face of our world as we know it.
WATER TRANSFER NORTH AMERICA
WATER TRANSFER NORTH AMERICA
  • There are 20 geological fault crossings between Alaska and California. To solve this problem:
  • The HUG invention outlines the method to float the pipeline under the turbulent ocean waves.
  • The HUG invention reduces the cost drastically, because of less water pumps.
WATER TRANSFER NORTH AMERICA
WATER TRANSFER NORTH AMERICA

The high costs, which includes construction, maintenance & operation , was to be $150 billion. Continue reading WATER TRANSFER NORTH AMERICA 2

WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE 2

THE HUG

  • The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction. This means a water transfer system in Singapore would go for hundreds of kilometers with fewer pumps
  • The traditional method is a straight pipeline, which develops a turbulent flow, caused by the friction on the inside lining of this pipeline.
  • This old pipeline system requires several expensive large dimension water pumps and water reservoirs along its pathway with a maximum length of less than 78 km.

This study is based on the HUG Innovation!

 
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
Planned Cyprus Water Project

Studies to carry water from mainland Turkey to Northern Cyprus have commenced recently following the signing of the contract between the giant Turkish contractor Alsim Alarko to provide water at a rate of 75 million m³ per year (2.38 m³/s) for 78 km long.

WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE

Batam Island: only25 km away

Singapore: Getting it Right

  • Singapore can go right to the front of the world queue.
  • Continuous innovation spearheads attracting companies and people.
  • Access to fresh water is a huge bargaining chip.

Singapore Benefits

  • Creating a ripple effect : building construction, roadways, agriculture, etc.
  • Creating thousands of man-years of employment
  • Deriving direct income through taxation of incomes, equipment, materials, & business profits.

Win Win for Singapore!

  • Economic advantages to Singapore: to offset the global warming “bite”
  • This has tremendous political, financial, and psychological advantages to promote Singapore pride.

If Singapore doesn’t take action?

  • We won’t develop & export Singapore technology .
  • We will become an importer of technology, like wind turbines.
  • Much of Singapore’s investment will flow to foreign suppliers.
  • We will lose profits from exporting our water technology to the U.S. & the world.

A Call to Action!

  • Singapore is an Expert in Large-Scale Infrastructure-Building Programs
  • Singapore supports clean water technology, which then can be imported.
  • It is time to build political and social solution, which is “Made in Singapore”.
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE

Technically Speaking Continue reading WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE 2

CONGO RIVER HYDRO & IRRIGATION POTENTIAL 2

THE HUG

Congo River Electricity created from moving water is produced in Remote Areas . The World Energy Council says electricity is a bridge to sustainable development and a prerequisite and cornerstone for economic progress, social development, harnessing technological progress and environmental sustainability.

With over one billion people, Africa accounts for over a sixth of the world’s population, but generates only 4% of global electricity.

CONGO RIVER HYDRO & IRRIGATION POTENTIAL
CONGO RIVER HYDRO & IRRIGATION POTENTIAL
CONGO RIVER HYDRO & IRRIGATION POTENTIAL
CONGO RIVER HYDRO POTENTIAL

Where is this Electricity coming from? the Congo River near Inga Continue reading CONGO RIVER HYDRO & IRRIGATION POTENTIAL 2

THE AFRICAN MIDDLE CLASS IS COMING!