Tag Archives: electricity

HUG THE MINI GRID 2

GOOD NIGHT, DARKNESS

Africa might leapfrog straight to cheap renewable electricity and mini-grids.Hug Mini Grid

Apart from speckles of light around the biggest cities, much of Africa is dark. Of all the measures of the continent’s poverty, few are starker than that about two-thirds of its people have no access to reliable electricity. The number of Africans without any power is 620 million, most of them in villages and on farms. The African Progress Panel (APP) found that in nine African countries fewer than one in five primary schools had lights. A study by the World Health Organization found that about a quarter of clinics and hospitals in 11 African countries have no power of any kind, and many of the rest get it from generators that often break down or run out of fuel.  If you don’t have electricity you don’t have a fridge, and if you don’t have a fridge hospitals can’t store vaccines. They rely on expensive backup generators, so the electricity they use is among the costliest in the world. This is the biggest single barrier to development.

Adding a house to the grid even in a compact country such as Rwanda typically costs about $2,000, which is more than the country’s average annual income per person. The APP reckons that expanding grid power across Africa to reach almost everyone would cost $63 billion a year until 2030, compared with the $8 billion a year that is being spent now. Continue reading HUG THE MINI GRID 2

KINETIC POWER OF WATER 2

 Kinetic Power 

The HUG is a damless system that uses kinetic power of moving water.  Rapids can add 70 MW power without impacting on  the environment. Africa could benefit from its kinetic power of water from rapids. This would provide a return on investment within just a few years.

HUG Malawi Rapids

A Funnel HUG can be adapted to capture kinetic energy in the form of electricity from the tail race of a dam.
Malawi HUG Rapids

Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: POWER

The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency    (A = area swept; Velocity).        The area of the throat of the HUG is 3.26 m2

 Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (7.7 m/s*)3 x .35 = 260kW/turbine x 6 = 1.56 MW

            Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m/sec

          (Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x 3.05 m)= 7.7 m/sec

The Next StepMalawi HUG rapids

Continue reading KINETIC POWER OF WATER 2

AFRICA NORTH HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

 ELECTRICITY & IRRIGATION

The estimated cost of an irrigation  & micro electricity system is $1,286,000 under normal circumstances in North Africa. The probable cost will be double or triple because no project like this has ever been accomplished:

The range of $1,286,000 to $3,850,000 of Irrigation Costs will be borne by private investment. The cost of the electricity is $.03/Kwh. The market price of electricity in remote areas of Africa is well over $.15/Kwh. That means a tremendous return on investment for the entrepreneur. 

OUR STRATEGY

Stage 1   Agricultural Mechanization of Africa                                                   Stage 2   Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund Resource
Stage 3   Micro Finance and Landlord Cooperative for Irrigation 
Stage 4   Irrigation in Remote Areas using moving water energy.
Stage 5   Electricity in Remote Areas created from moving water.

Northern Energy Highway: 6,500 MW to El Fasher, Sudan

Where does all this electricity come from? the Congo River near Inga.

AFRICA NORTH HYDRO & IRRIGATION
AFRICA NORTH HYDRO & IRRIGATION
Africa north hydro irrigation
Africa north hydro irrigation
Africa north hydro irrigation
Africa north hydro irrigation

Continue reading AFRICA NORTH HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

ATLANTIC AFRICA HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

 HUG Ocean Current Power


Ocean-current-turbines inside the ocean along the coastline from  Ghana and Liberia, which could generate all of their energy needs.

00Untitled-6Why hasn’t anyone developed this potential? Because ocean current flow is only 1 m/sec.  The HUG System is designed to create a fast laminar flow from  the turbulent ocean current and thereby increasing the  necessary threshold velocity  to 3.1 m/sec.

Why hasn’t anyone developed this potential? Because ocean current flow is only 1 m/sec.  The HUG System is designed to create a fast laminar flow from  the turbulent ocean current and thereby increasing the  necessary threshold velocity  to 3.1 m/sec.

ZZZZUntitled-14Ocean-current-turbines inside the ocean along the coastline from  Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Liberia, which could generate all of their energy needs.

00Untitled-7 Continue reading ATLANTIC AFRICA HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

AFRICA SOUTH EAST: HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

 

map AFRICA SOUTH EAST HYDRO & IRRIGATION
map AFRICA SOUTH EAST HYDRO

Where does all this electricity come from? Congo River near Inga.

AFRICA SOUTH EAST HYDRO
map AFRICA SOUTH EAST HYDRO

Continue reading AFRICA SOUTH EAST: HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

AFRICA WEST HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

  ELECTRICITY & IRRIGATION

The estimated cost of an irrigation  & micro electricity system is $1,286,000 under normal circumstances in West Africa countries. The probable cost will be double or triple because no project like this has ever been accomplished:

The range of $1,286,000 to $3,850,000 of Irrigation Costs will be borne by private investment. The cost of the electricity is $.033/Kwh. The market price of electricity in remote areas of Africa is well over $.15/Kwh.

AFRICA WEST HYDRO & IRRIGATION
AFRICA WEST HYDRO & IRRIGATION
AFRICA WEST HYDRO & IRRIGATION
AFRICA WEST HYDRO & IRRIGATION

Where does all this electricity come from? the Congo River near Inga.

The Western Energy Highway to Lagos would deliver 1,000 MW and would cost $600 million. Western Highway would expand to 4000 MW in 2012 and to 8,000 MW in 2020 to Cameroon and Calabar, Nigeria. Continue reading AFRICA WEST HYDRO & IRRIGATION 2

AFRICA EAST HYDRO & ELECTRICITY 2

ELECTRICITY & IRRIGATION

The estimated cost of an irrigation  & micro electricity system is $1,286,000 under normal circumstances in East Africa. The probable cost will be double or triple because no project like this has ever been accomplished:

The range of $1,286,000 to $3,850,000 of Irrigation Costs will be borne by private investment. The cost of the electricity is $.033/Kwh. The market price of electricity in remote areas of Africa is well over $.15/Kwh.

map Africa East hydro irrigation
map Africa East hydro irrigation

Where does all this electricity come from? the Congo River near Inga.

map Africa East hydro irrigation
Africa East hydro irrigation

Continue reading AFRICA EAST HYDRO & ELECTRICITY 2

AFRICA ELECTRICITY & IRRIGATION 2

The Second Green Revolution starting in Africa

Micro Irrigation, which is 95% efficient — meaning that almost all the water is applied to nurturing the plants compared with as little as 20% in traditional irrigation. While irrigated land makes up only 17% of all farmland, it produces 40% of the world’s crops.

The Green Revolution has been losing its momentum for a long time. Growth in world grain production slowed from 3% per annum to 1% over the last decade. Improper irrigation techniques cause some of the problems: too much water in the fields leave behind salts that build up in the soil and this ultimately leaves the land infertile.

Somehow the U.N. predicts that farmers will increase the area of land under cultivation by 27% over the next 18 years. Sustainable agriculture will develop without exhausting the land. Organic farming will become more attractive as fewer farmers will depend on chemical fertilizers, for example, beans replace the fields’ lost nitrogen.

Genetic manipulation will create more bountiful crops. Micro-irrigation will expand to more than the present 1% of all irrigated lands. Together all these trends could spur a Second Green Revolution –– one that would be less destructive that the first.

AFRICA HYDRO & IRRIGATION
AFRICA HYDRO & IRRIGATION

Continue reading AFRICA ELECTRICITY & IRRIGATION 2

HUG and GLOBAL WARMING 2

GLOBAL WARMING PREDICTION

The U.N. Panel on Climate Change’s prediction is that we have past the likelihood of  keeping global warming below 2 degrees C.

Fossil Fuel Warning

Climate scientists beg governments to leave buried natural resources in the ground.

The research project started with the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s calculation that in order to have at least a 40 percent chance of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C, somewhere between 900 and 1,200 giga tons of carbon dioxide can be dumped in the atmosphere.

Vast underground reserves of oil, gas and coal should be classified as off limits if the world stands any chance of averting dangerous climate change, a major study of global fossil-fuel deposits has found.

Scientists calculated that a third of global oil reserves, half of gas reserves and more than 80 per cent of coal reserves should remain in the ground as “unburnable” to avoid exceeding the 2C “safe” threshold for global warming.

The scale of the problem facing the climate negotiations in Paris later this year is writ large in the study by Christophe McGlade and Paul Ekins of University College London who have identified the critical fossils fuels and their locations that need to remain untouched and unexploited.

China, Russia and the United States will have to leave their huge deposits of coal – the dirtiest of the three main fossil fuels – underground, while the Middle East will need to agree to keep much of its wealth-creating oil and gas reserves where they are.

Similarly, Canada will have to relinquish its ambitions of producing oil from tar sands and the Arctic nations, mainly Russia, will have to agree that exploiting oil and gas in this environmentally sensitive region would be incompatible with a global climate agreement.

HUG and GLOBAL WARMING
HUG and GLOBAL WARMING

“Burning all the reserves would exceed the range of the carbon budget by about three times burning all the fossil fuel resources would probably exceed it by about 10 to 11 times,” Dr McGlade said.

“If we want to reach 2C in the most cost effective way, over 80 per cent of current coal reserves, half of gas reserves and a third of oil reserves globally need to be classified as unburnable, that is to stay in the ground and not be used before 2050 if we want to stay below 2C,” he said.

The greater global attention to climate policy also means that fossil fuel companies are becoming increasingly risky for investors in terms of the delivery of long-term returns

Canada holds the world’s single largest share of unburnable oil because most of that reserve comes in the form of tar sands, a mix of bitumen and sand that requires burning natural gas to transform it into usable petroleum products. “Eighty-five percent of its reserve base of 50 billion barrels has to remain in the ground,” McGlade said.

Regional Distribution of Reserves Unburnable before 2050 to stay below 2 degrees C even with CCS

Region Oil Gas Coal
  Gb % Tcm % Gt %
Africa 23 21% 4.4 33% 28 85%
Canada 39 74% 0.3 24% 5.0 75%
China & India 9 25% 2.9 63% 180 66%
FSU 27 18% 31 50% 203 94%
C & S America 58 39% 4.8 53% 8 51%
Europe 5.0 20% 0.6 11% 65 78%
Middle East 263 38% 46 61% 3.4 99%
OECD Pacific 2.1 37% 2.2 56% 83 93%
ODA 2.0 9% 2.2 24% 10 34%
United States 2.8 6% 0.3 4% 235 92%
Global 431 33% 95 49% 819 82%

Currently, the world is on pace for as much as 5 degrees C of global warming, or the equivalent of burning an extra roughly 300 billion metric tons of coal and 220 billion barrels of oil, including some of the reserves likely to be discovered in the rapidly melting arctic.

To avoid burning all that fossil fuel the ISR computer model suggests building more nuclear power plants, switching to rooftop solar power and burning biofuels while capturing and storing the resulting carbon to help draw down atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These concentrations have already touched 400 parts per million, the highest levels seen in at least 800,000 years.

Deaths per TWh

The World Health Organization has published information on the Deaths per TWh (2008):

  • Coal (electricity, heat, cooking –world average) 100 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
  • Coal electricity – world average 60 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
  • Coal (electricity, heat, cooking)– China 170 ( 4 billion tons of coal burned by China each year makes it a grim place to live.)
  • Coal – USA 15
  • Oil 36 (36% of world energy)
  • Hydro 0.10 (2.2% of world energy)

Solar and Wind Energy Solutions won’t cut it!

This Study on Climate Change neglected to mention an important solution: Small Hydro and the Innovative HUG.

WORLD HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL

WORLD HYDRO POWER POTENTIALEnter Small Hydro Potential!

HUG HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL
HUG HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL

Continue reading HUG and GLOBAL WARMING 2

WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE 2

THE HUG

  • The new patented pipeline, called HUG require little or no huge water pumps. This water pipeline, encourages a laminar flow with little or no friction. This means a water transfer system in Singapore would go for hundreds of kilometers with fewer pumps
  • The traditional method is a straight pipeline, which develops a turbulent flow, caused by the friction on the inside lining of this pipeline.
  • This old pipeline system requires several expensive large dimension water pumps and water reservoirs along its pathway with a maximum length of less than 78 km.

This study is based on the HUG Innovation!

 
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
Planned Cyprus Water Project

Studies to carry water from mainland Turkey to Northern Cyprus have commenced recently following the signing of the contract between the giant Turkish contractor Alsim Alarko to provide water at a rate of 75 million m³ per year (2.38 m³/s) for 78 km long.

WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE

Batam Island: only25 km away

Singapore: Getting it Right

  • Singapore can go right to the front of the world queue.
  • Continuous innovation spearheads attracting companies and people.
  • Access to fresh water is a huge bargaining chip.

Singapore Benefits

  • Creating a ripple effect : building construction, roadways, agriculture, etc.
  • Creating thousands of man-years of employment
  • Deriving direct income through taxation of incomes, equipment, materials, & business profits.

Win Win for Singapore!

  • Economic advantages to Singapore: to offset the global warming “bite”
  • This has tremendous political, financial, and psychological advantages to promote Singapore pride.

If Singapore doesn’t take action?

  • We won’t develop & export Singapore technology .
  • We will become an importer of technology, like wind turbines.
  • Much of Singapore’s investment will flow to foreign suppliers.
  • We will lose profits from exporting our water technology to the U.S. & the world.

A Call to Action!

  • Singapore is an Expert in Large-Scale Infrastructure-Building Programs
  • Singapore supports clean water technology, which then can be imported.
  • It is time to build political and social solution, which is “Made in Singapore”.
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE
WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE

Technically Speaking Continue reading WATER TRANSFER SINGAPORE 2