Africa might leapfrog straight to cheap renewable electricity and mini-grids.
Apart from speckles of light around the biggest cities, much of Africa is dark.Of all the measures of the continent’s poverty, few are starker than that about two-thirds of its people have no access to reliable electricity. The number of Africans without any power is 620 million, most of them in villages and on farms. The African Progress Panel (APP) found that in nine African countries fewer than one in five primary schools had lights. A study by the World Health Organization found that about a quarter of clinics and hospitals in 11 African countries have no power of any kind, and many of the rest get it from generators that often break down or run out of fuel. If you don’t have electricity you don’t have a fridge, and if you don’t have a fridge hospitals can’t store vaccines. They rely on expensive backup generators, so the electricity they use is among the costliest in the world. This is the biggest single barrier to development.
Adding a house to the grid even in a compact country such as Rwanda typically costs about $2,000, which is more than the country’s average annual income per person. The APP reckons that expanding grid power across Africa to reach almost everyone would cost $63 billion a year until 2030, compared with the $8 billion a year that is being spent now.Continue reading HUG THE MINI GRID 2→
TheHUGis a damless system that uses kinetic power of moving water. Rapids can add 70 MW power without impacting on the environment. Africa could benefit from its kinetic power of water from rapids. This would provide a return on investment within just a few years.
A Funnel HUG can be adapted to capture kinetic energy in the form of electricity from the tail race of a dam.
Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: POWER
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity). The area of the throat of the HUG is 3.26 m2
Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (7.7 m/s*)3 x .35 = 260kW/turbine x 6 = 1.56 MW
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m/sec
(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x 3.05 m)= 7.7 m/sec
The estimated cost of an irrigation & micro electricity system is $1,286,000 under normal circumstances in North Africa. The probable cost will be double or triple because no project like this has ever been accomplished:
The range of $1,286,000to $3,850,000 of Irrigation Costs will be borne by private investment. The cost of the electricity is $.03/Kwh. The market price of electricity in remote areas of Africa is well over $.15/Kwh. That means a tremendous return on investment for the entrepreneur.
Stage 1 Agricultural Mechanization of Africa Stage 2 Today’s Tall Trees Nursery: Carbon Tax Fund Resource Stage 3 Micro Finance and Landlord Cooperative for Irrigation Stage 4 Irrigation in Remote Areas using moving water energy. Stage 5 Electricity in Remote Areas created from moving water.
Northern Energy Highway: 6,500 MW to El Fasher, Sudan
Where does all this electricity come from? the Congo River near Inga.
The estimated cost of an irrigation & micro electricity system is $1,286,000 under normal circumstances in West Africa countries. The probable cost will be double or triple because no project like this has ever been accomplished:
The range of $1,286,000 to $3,850,000 of Irrigation Costs will be borne by private investment. The cost of the electricity is $.033/Kwh. The market price of electricity in remote areas of Africa is well over $.15/Kwh.
Where does all this electricity come from? the Congo River near Inga.
The U.N. Panel on Climate Change’s prediction is that we have past the likelihood of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C.
Fossil Fuel Warning
Climate scientists beg governments to leave buried natural resources in the ground.
The research project started with the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s calculation that in order to have at least a 40 percent chance of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C, somewhere between 900 and 1,200 giga tons of carbon dioxide can be dumped in the atmosphere.
Vast underground reserves of oil, gas and coal should be classified as off limits if the world stands any chance of averting dangerous climate change, a major study of global fossil-fuel deposits has found.
Scientists calculated that a third of global oil reserves, half of gas reserves and more than 80 per cent of coal reserves should remain in the ground as “unburnable” to avoid exceeding the 2C “safe” threshold for global warming.
The scale of the problem facing the climate negotiations in Paris later this year is writ large in the study by Christophe McGlade and Paul Ekins of University College London who have identified the critical fossils fuels and their locations that need to remain untouched and unexploited.
China, Russia and the United States will have to leave their huge deposits of coal – the dirtiest of the three main fossil fuels – underground, while the Middle East will need to agree to keep much of its wealth-creating oil and gas reserves where they are.
Similarly, Canada will have to relinquish its ambitions of producing oil from tar sands and the Arctic nations, mainly Russia, will have to agree that exploiting oil and gas in this environmentally sensitive region would be incompatible with a global climate agreement.
“Burning all the reserves would exceed the range of the carbon budget by about three times burning all the fossil fuel resources would probably exceed it by about 10 to 11 times,” Dr McGlade said.
“If we want to reach 2C in the most cost effective way, over 80 per cent of current coal reserves, half of gas reserves and a third of oil reserves globally need to be classified as unburnable, that is to stay in the ground and not be used before 2050 if we want to stay below 2C,” he said.
The greater global attention to climate policy also means that fossil fuel companies are becoming increasingly risky for investors in terms of the delivery of long-term returns
Canada holds the world’s single largest share of unburnable oil because most of that reserve comes in the form of tar sands, a mix of bitumen and sand that requires burning natural gas to transform it into usable petroleum products. “Eighty-five percent of its reserve base of 50 billion barrels has to remain in the ground,” McGlade said.
Regional Distribution of Reserves Unburnable before 2050 to stay below 2 degrees C even with CCS
China & India
C & S America
Currently, the world is on pace for as much as 5 degrees C of global warming,or the equivalent of burning an extra roughly 300 billion metric tons of coal and 220 billion barrels of oil, including some of the reserves likely to be discovered in the rapidly melting arctic.
To avoid burning all that fossil fuel the ISR computer model suggests building more nuclear power plants, switching to rooftop solar power and burning biofuels while capturing and storing the resulting carbon to help draw down atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These concentrations have already touched 400 parts per million, the highest levels seen in at least 800,000 years.
Deaths per TWh
The World Health Organization has published information on the Deaths per TWh (2008):
Coal (electricity, heat, cooking –world average) 100 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
Coal electricity – world average 60(26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
Coal (electricity, heat, cooking)– China 170 ( 4 billion tons of coal burned by China each year makes it a grim place to live.)
Coal – USA 15
Oil 36 (36% of world energy)
Hydro 0.10 (2.2% of world energy)
Solar and Wind Energy Solutions won’t cut it!
This Study on Climate Change neglected to mention an important solution: Small Hydro and the Innovative HUG.
WORLD HYDRO POWER POTENTIALEnter Small Hydro Potential!
Congo River Electricity created from moving water is produced in Remote Areas . The World Energy Council says electricity is a bridge to sustainable development and a prerequisite and cornerstone for economic progress, social development, harnessing technological progress and environmental sustainability.
With over one billion people, Africa accounts for over a sixth of the world’s population, but generates only 4% of global electricity.
Our solution lies in a hydro kinetic energy system called theHUG: Electricity in Remote Areas created from moving water. Electricity supply is worse in rural areas where four out of five people in Africa, are without electricity. The rate of rural electrification is lower than in any other continent. The proportion of people in Africa still depending on inefficient traditional energy sources is higher than in any other continent.
We have developed the ProprietaryHUG, based on the physics of the vortex, which will revolutionize hydroelectric energy. This new damless development of a submerged helical pathway is capable of extracting huge hydro-electric power from rivers, rapids or small waterfalls at low cost, especially in remote areas of the country where there are no dams.
HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a New Good, which has never been seen before; it substantially deviates from any other good or service produced before. Over the past decades, no major breakthroughs have occurred in utilities.
The river flows into a pencil-shaped construction, called a HUG, which uses a helical turbine to power a large irrigation pump without the expense of electricity or diesel . When we direct the water to flow at its natural mode, it hugs the inner wall. This kind of vortex motion tends to accelerate and contract the stream of water four to five times faster than the river velocity.