Tag Archives: global warming



Africa might leapfrog straight to cheap renewable electricity and mini-grids.Hug Mini Grid

Apart from speckles of light around the biggest cities, much of Africa is dark. Of all the measures of the continent’s poverty, few are starker than that about two-thirds of its people have no access to reliable electricity. The number of Africans without any power is 620 million, most of them in villages and on farms. The African Progress Panel (APP) found that in nine African countries fewer than one in five primary schools had lights. A study by the World Health Organization found that about a quarter of clinics and hospitals in 11 African countries have no power of any kind, and many of the rest get it from generators that often break down or run out of fuel.  If you don’t have electricity you don’t have a fridge, and if you don’t have a fridge hospitals can’t store vaccines. They rely on expensive backup generators, so the electricity they use is among the costliest in the world. This is the biggest single barrier to development.

Adding a house to the grid even in a compact country such as Rwanda typically costs about $2,000, which is more than the country’s average annual income per person. The APP reckons that expanding grid power across Africa to reach almost everyone would cost $63 billion a year until 2030, compared with the $8 billion a year that is being spent now. Continue reading HUG THE MINI GRID 2


The Next Green Revolution is Here.

Science prevented the last food crisis. Can it save us again in the Next Green Revolution? Africa’s cropland biomass occupies ~38% of the photo synthetically active land area of the African continent (~19.8 M km2) and encompasses more than 90% of its rural population living in 54 countries.

We must concentrate on the biomass of Africa that include forests and rangelands, but exclude deserts

A big, risky decision for small holder farmers is what type and how much fertilizer to apply to their crops. There is lot of uncertainty about how the crops will respond, with a risk that the farmers will even lose when they harvest and sell the produce. Testing the soil beforehand and knowing how plants will respond can play an important role in reducing this risk. But the high cost and lack of access to testing services have been major bottlenecks for farmers in developing countries.

Low-Cost Soil AnalysisNext Green Revolution

Similarly, planners in governments, the private sector and non-governmental organizations who are working out what to supply to small holder farmers are also faced with large uncertainties on what types and combinations of inputs to supply and where, in relation to the local soils. For example, a number of agencies in Africa are designing fertilizer blending and liming programs and so need to know how strongly acid soils are and what soil micro nutrients may be limiting in different areas. Existing soil maps do not provide up-to-date information on specific soil properties that are needed to guide such decisions. Continue reading NEXT GREEN REVOLUTION 2


 Kinetic Power 

The HUG is a damless system that uses kinetic power of moving water.  Rapids can add 70 MW power without impacting on  the environment. Africa could benefit from its kinetic power of water from rapids. This would provide a return on investment within just a few years.

HUG Malawi Rapids

A Funnel HUG can be adapted to capture kinetic energy in the form of electricity from the tail race of a dam.
Malawi HUG Rapids

Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: POWER

The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency    (A = area swept; Velocity).        The area of the throat of the HUG is 3.26 m2

 Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (7.7 m/s*)3 x .35 = 260kW/turbine x 6 = 1.56 MW

            Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m/sec

          (Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x 3.05 m)= 7.7 m/sec

The Next StepMalawi HUG rapids

Continue reading KINETIC POWER OF WATER 2



The U.N. Panel on Climate Change’s prediction is that we have past the likelihood of  keeping global warming below 2 degrees C.

Fossil Fuel Warning

Climate scientists beg governments to leave buried natural resources in the ground.

The research project started with the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s calculation that in order to have at least a 40 percent chance of keeping global warming below 2 degrees C, somewhere between 900 and 1,200 giga tons of carbon dioxide can be dumped in the atmosphere.

Vast underground reserves of oil, gas and coal should be classified as off limits if the world stands any chance of averting dangerous climate change, a major study of global fossil-fuel deposits has found.

Scientists calculated that a third of global oil reserves, half of gas reserves and more than 80 per cent of coal reserves should remain in the ground as “unburnable” to avoid exceeding the 2C “safe” threshold for global warming.

The scale of the problem facing the climate negotiations in Paris later this year is writ large in the study by Christophe McGlade and Paul Ekins of University College London who have identified the critical fossils fuels and their locations that need to remain untouched and unexploited.

China, Russia and the United States will have to leave their huge deposits of coal – the dirtiest of the three main fossil fuels – underground, while the Middle East will need to agree to keep much of its wealth-creating oil and gas reserves where they are.

Similarly, Canada will have to relinquish its ambitions of producing oil from tar sands and the Arctic nations, mainly Russia, will have to agree that exploiting oil and gas in this environmentally sensitive region would be incompatible with a global climate agreement.


“Burning all the reserves would exceed the range of the carbon budget by about three times burning all the fossil fuel resources would probably exceed it by about 10 to 11 times,” Dr McGlade said.

“If we want to reach 2C in the most cost effective way, over 80 per cent of current coal reserves, half of gas reserves and a third of oil reserves globally need to be classified as unburnable, that is to stay in the ground and not be used before 2050 if we want to stay below 2C,” he said.

The greater global attention to climate policy also means that fossil fuel companies are becoming increasingly risky for investors in terms of the delivery of long-term returns

Canada holds the world’s single largest share of unburnable oil because most of that reserve comes in the form of tar sands, a mix of bitumen and sand that requires burning natural gas to transform it into usable petroleum products. “Eighty-five percent of its reserve base of 50 billion barrels has to remain in the ground,” McGlade said.

Regional Distribution of Reserves Unburnable before 2050 to stay below 2 degrees C even with CCS

Region Oil Gas Coal
  Gb % Tcm % Gt %
Africa 23 21% 4.4 33% 28 85%
Canada 39 74% 0.3 24% 5.0 75%
China & India 9 25% 2.9 63% 180 66%
FSU 27 18% 31 50% 203 94%
C & S America 58 39% 4.8 53% 8 51%
Europe 5.0 20% 0.6 11% 65 78%
Middle East 263 38% 46 61% 3.4 99%
OECD Pacific 2.1 37% 2.2 56% 83 93%
ODA 2.0 9% 2.2 24% 10 34%
United States 2.8 6% 0.3 4% 235 92%
Global 431 33% 95 49% 819 82%

Currently, the world is on pace for as much as 5 degrees C of global warming, or the equivalent of burning an extra roughly 300 billion metric tons of coal and 220 billion barrels of oil, including some of the reserves likely to be discovered in the rapidly melting arctic.

To avoid burning all that fossil fuel the ISR computer model suggests building more nuclear power plants, switching to rooftop solar power and burning biofuels while capturing and storing the resulting carbon to help draw down atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These concentrations have already touched 400 parts per million, the highest levels seen in at least 800,000 years.

Deaths per TWh

The World Health Organization has published information on the Deaths per TWh (2008):

  • Coal (electricity, heat, cooking –world average) 100 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
  • Coal electricity – world average 60 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity)
  • Coal (electricity, heat, cooking)– China 170 ( 4 billion tons of coal burned by China each year makes it a grim place to live.)
  • Coal – USA 15
  • Oil 36 (36% of world energy)
  • Hydro 0.10 (2.2% of world energy)

Solar and Wind Energy Solutions won’t cut it!

This Study on Climate Change neglected to mention an important solution: Small Hydro and the Innovative HUG.




Continue reading HUG and GLOBAL WARMING 2